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Strengthening protections against unfair contract terms

5 days left to have your say
Consultation Type
Exposure Draft

Key Documents

The Government is strengthening protections for consumers and small businesses against unfair contract terms.

Treasury previously consulted on a draft Regulation Impact Statement. The final Regulation Impact Statement and stakeholder submissions are available.

Commonwealth, state and territory consumer ministers agreed to proceed with reforms in November 2020, including to:

  • make UCTs unlawful and give courts the power to impose a civil penalty;
  • provide more flexible remedies to a court when it declares a contract term unfair by:
    • giving courts the power to determine an appropriate remedy, rather than the term being automatically void;
    • clarifying that the remedies available for ‘non-party consumers’ also apply to ‘non-party small businesses’; and
    • creating a rebuttable presumption provision for UCTs used in similar circumstances;
  • increase the eligibility threshold for the protections from less than 20 employees to less than 100 employees, and introduce an annual turnover threshold of less than $10 million as an alternative threshold for determining eligibility;
  • remove the requirement for the upfront price payable under a contract to be below a certain threshold in order for the contract to be covered by the UCT protections;
  • improve clarity around the definition of standard-form contract, by providing further certainty on factors such as repeat usage of a contract template, and whether the small business had an effective opportunity to negotiate the contract; and
  • enable certain clauses that include ‘minimum standards’ or other industry-specific requirements contained in relevant Commonwealth, state or territory legislation to be exempt from the protections.

This exposure draft legislation would amend the Australian Consumer Law and the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 to implement the agreed reforms.

Changes relative to what was consulted on previously include:

  • Retaining the current automatic voiding provisions in the law. That is, if a court finds a term in a standard form consumer or small business contract is unfair, that term is considered void under the law, without the need for further action or orders to be made. (Previous consultation considered removing these provisions from the law.)
  • Streamlining the court’s power to make orders to void, vary or refuse to enforce part or all of a contract (or collateral arrangement).
  • Clarifying the court’s power to make orders that apply to any existing consumer or small business standard form contracts entered into by a respondent (whether or not that contract is put before the court) that contains an unfair contract term that is the same or substantially similar to a term the court has declared to be an unfair contract term.
  • Clarifying the court’s power to issue injunctions against a respondent with respect to existing or future consumer or small business standard form contracts entered into by a respondent, containing a term that is the same or is substantially the same as a term the court has declared to be an unfair contract term.

The Government is seeking stakeholder views on the exposure draft legislation and explanatory materials.

Public consultation on the exposure draft legislation and explanatory materials will close on 20 September 2021.


You can submit responses to this consultation up until 20 September 2021. Interested parties are invited to comment on this consultation.

While submissions may be lodged electronically or by post, electronic lodgement is preferred. For accessibility reasons, please submit responses sent via email in a Word or RTF format. An additional PDF version may also be submitted.

All information (including name and address details) contained in submissions will be made available to the public on the Treasury website unless you indicate that you would like all or part of your submission to remain in confidence. Automatically generated confidentiality statements in emails do not suffice for this purpose. Respondents who would like part of their submission to remain in confidence should provide this information marked as such in a separate attachment.

Legal requirements, such as those imposed by the Freedom of Information Act 1982, may affect the confidentiality of your submission.

View our submission guidelines for further information.

How To Respond



Address written submissions to:

Consumer Policy and Currency Unit
Market Conduct Division
Langton Cres
Parkes ACT 2600